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oldtexasdog

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On 12/6/2019 at 4:02 PM, oldtexasdog said:

Ganzfeld Experiments

A ganzfeld experiment is a technique used in the field of parapsychology to test individuals for extrasensory perception (ESP). It uses homogeneous and unpatterned sensory stimulation, achieved through the use of translucent, monochromatic goggles that create a uniform visual field and headphones that play white noise, to produce an effect similar to sensory deprivation, which is thought to help people reach a state of consciousness conducive to ESP. What have experiments shown about ESP?

 

(Didn't want to let this fun one pass.)

 

Parasychology (psi) as a basis for ESP was one of the targets of early experiments, by my read of the literature. One good source, HERE on Wikipedia. The early and later research results of such Ganzfeld Experiments were challenged based on statistical analysis and found three flaws that continue under dispute by researchers.  The three flaws were around: 

  1. Isolation, and sensory leaks in the test environment.
  2. Randomization of both target and subject.
  3. the "psi Assumption" - that any deviation from "statistical chance" would prove the existence of ESP/psi.

This one is interesting, for sure, as the proof problem to solve has not yet been clearly identified.

 

There may be other possible responses to @oldtexasdog's question..., but this is one I percieve.

 

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Say, doing my part...  Each year, Wikipedia, needs to meet their budget.  I donate.

 

While people debate about truth on the internet, My experience as a past Wikipedia article writer, is that the mechanism set up to curate information is exceptional.  What I wrote was re-written - AND made better - by the volunteers, academics, and other folks that do this work.

 

Wikipedia is asking for donations of $2.75..., just that, to stay afloat.  I gave more.

 

If you've found value there, help them out.  If not, ignore this as more "worthless information."

 

I think it's good to support curated research.  Articles are great to read.  And the bibliography of sources at the end give it the kind of credibility and basis in REAL fact while pointing to other places to get more information beyond the article on Wikipedia.  

 

Peace.

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On 12/7/2019 at 10:44 PM, RichP714 said:

 

The photons of light hitting you from the Sun right now were formed in the interior of the Sun about 100,000 years ago. They bounced around inside the Sun, losing energy the whole time, and finally escaped about 8 minutes ago, landing on your forehead (animated (press play at lower left)(right click>loop too))

 

 

 

 

7 hours ago, AndrewJohn said:

 

video gives the illusion of "flames." is there any correlation?  Or are those images of movement the photons?

 

...or both?  (out of my element on this one).

 

The continuously outward flow is the solar 'wind' (a stream of highly charged particles, mostly electrons. any ejecta that is bound to the sun's disk, in a loop, is caught in a magnetic flux line, and is called a prominence.

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15 hours ago, AndrewJohn said:

Say, doing my part...  Each year, Wikipedia, needs to meet their budget.  I donate.

 

Good show - thanks for the prodding.  I sent them a few shekels as well!  I rely on them too much, not to care.  ~^

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21 hours ago, Charlie said:

The Three Legged Pogo Stick (an abandoned patent)

 

For reasons that are not expanded upon in the official documentation, the application was : ABANDONED — FAILURE TO RESPOND TO AN OFFICE ACTION.

 

https://www.improbable.com/2019/12/09/the-three-legged-pogo-stick-an-abandoned-patent/

 

PogoPatent.jpg

 

Nice "bonus assignment" at the bottom of the link's page: "Determine, with explanations, the optimum number of legs for a pogo stick."

 

My answer: Might be 1, 2 or infinite.  But probably not 3.  1, to match the original intent of the "Pogo Stick" toy; 2 perhaps to match the number of feet we have..., not proven, though; and infinite, to create a single plane surface moving up and down, thereby reducing asymptotically the sense of falling and requiring the rider to adjust. 😉 

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WE all get depressed at times.  The next time you are thinking its all a bit too overwhelming, or that the universe is against you, just remember:

 

Quote

"Mass tells space-time how to curve, and space-time tells mass how to move."  ~ John Wheeler

 

He probably wasn't thinking this way at the time, but since YOU are mass, the universe is always giving you a hug!

 

An animated look at how spacetime responds as a mass moves through it helps showcase exactly how,... [+] qualitatively, it isn't merely a sheet of fabric but all of space itself gets curved by the presence and properties of the matter and energy within the Universe. Note that spacetime can only be described if we include not only the position of the massive object, but where that mass is located throughout time. Both instantaneous location and the past history of where that object was located determine the forces experienced by objects moving through the Universe.

 

 

 

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Bo Diddley (1928)

Diddley was a pioneering African-American rock-and-roll singer, guitarist, and songwriter. He was known for his pounding signature beat, guitar effects, and jive talk, and he was a powerful influence on generations of rockers, including Buddy Holly, Jimi Hendrix, and the Rolling Stones. Nicknamed after the single-stringed folk instrument called a diddley bow, he studied the violin at his Baptist Church in Chicago and began performing in South Side clubs, playing what unique type of guitar?

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22 hours ago, oldtexasdog said:

Bo Diddley (1928)

Diddley was a pioneering African-American rock-and-roll singer, guitarist, and songwriter. He was known for his pounding signature beat, guitar effects, and jive talk, and he was a powerful influence on generations of rockers, including Buddy Holly, Jimi Hendrix, and the Rolling Stones. Nicknamed after the single-stringed folk instrument called a diddley bow, he studied the violin at his Baptist Church in Chicago and began performing in South Side clubs, playing what unique type of guitar?

73ec61602b41a8ad8f96296a9bfca876.jpg

 

Eventually, Gretsch made a Bo Diddley signature series guitar with a square body called a "Gretsch Firebird" (in the picture from @Brian_at_HHH) which he used, but that was later in his career. 

 

He helped design that guitar with Gretsch by saying he wanted a custom guitar like the ones he used earlier in his career.   The last Gretsch he used sold at auction for $80,000, two years after he died in 2007, from a stroke during a concert.

 

bo-diddley-rip.jpg

But to @oldtexasdog's question on what guitar he used when he started out in Chicago?  Early in his career, as he was making a name for himself with his signature music, Bo Diddley (also known by his taken family name McDaniel from his mother's cousin, Elias Bates, who raised him), made his own guitars, and made guitars for his friends, out of old Cigar Boxes - which, like many musicians of the time, was the way you had to get into music..., "make your own instrument."  "Bo Diddley" was a term back then that meant "absolutely nothin'", and was apropos to McDaniel making music from a guitar, made from "absolutely nothing." 

 

Back then, cigars came in wooden boxes of many shapes and sizes and were larger, making them conducive to repurposing as flat-top square guitar bodies.  He made dozens of these, gave some away, and if you have one, it is a rare find.  He even gave one to Dick Clark, after appearing on American Bandstand.  This information is also referenced by Rolling Stone Magazine, link HERE.

 

I found these photos on the internet..., so it must be true..., interesting nonetheless.  It's identified as Bo Diddley'sbo-diddley.jpg first guitar.  And, there's an interesting piece on Bo Diddley's guitars on the Google Image Search gives us more interesting photos, HERE.  A reference to that image, with Bo Diddley's first guitar in a framed display located in NYC at the Hard Rock Café at 1501 Broadway, is found at this link HERE at a Trip Advisor user review of the cafe.

    

 

 

After building his signature sound, he then played a Stewart/Orpheum guitar made in New Jersey who sourced guitar bodies and necks from other manufacturers, with high-end Franz pickups.

 

Eventually, and finally, he moved on to play the Gretsch Firebird. ...among many other guitars in his collection.

 

tumblr_oxxpmcQhEN1qcmcv4o1_1280.jpg

 

One thing for sure, is that Bo Diddley could play!

 

Source of this information, and some really good reading:  Unique Guitar Blog Link HERE.

Edited by AndrewJohn
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Happy B Day Popeye

Popeye Makes His Debut in the Thimble Theater Comic Strip (1929) on this Day

Popeye, the popular cartoon character who turns from sailor to strongman with a few swallows of spinach, started out as a minor character in the Thimble Theater comic strip. In its early days, the strip starred Olive Oyl and her boyfriend, Ham Gravy. However, after cartoonist E.C. Segar introduced Popeye, he became so popular that his role was expanded, and he soon replaced Ham as Olive's love interest, going on adventures with her brother, Castor Oyl, and facing what nemesis? 

 

 

popeye.png

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36 minutes ago, oldtexasdog said:

Happy B Day Popeye

Popeye Makes His Debut in the Thimble Theater Comic Strip (1929) on this Day

Popeye, the popular cartoon character who turns from sailor to strongman with a few swallows of spinach, started out as a minor character in the Thimble Theater comic strip. In its early days, the strip starred Olive Oyl and her boyfriend, Ham Gravy. However, after cartoonist E.C. Segar introduced Popeye, he became so popular that his role was expanded, and he soon replaced Ham as Olive's love interest, going on adventures with her brother, Castor Oyl, and facing what nemesis? 

 

 

popeye.png

 

Wasn't it Bluto, or Brutus (both names apparently were used).

hHYdgyGq28pLmkH4h0e91vjwzPH4ymHhoDtBmowj

 

Another story of Popeye, I found on the internet..., so it must be true, is that the character was based on a real person, named Frank "Rocky" Fiegel, of Illinois.  Story here:

https://rare.us/rare-news/history/frank-rocky-fiegel-popeye/

 

rare-30-1.jpg

 

31875462_137938898300.jpg?w=616&h=462

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James Watt (1736)

A largely self-taught Scottish engineer and inventor, Watt greatly impacted the Industrial Revolution with his development of the Watt engine. Asked to repair a model of Thomas Newcomen's steam engine, he instead made improvements to it that resulted in a new type of engine. One such design enhancement, the separate condenser, radically improved the power, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness of steam engines. The watt, a unit of power, is named for him. What other unit of power did he develop? 

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On 1/19/2020 at 8:43 AM, oldtexasdog said:

James Watt (1736)

A largely self-taught Scottish engineer and inventor, Watt greatly impacted the Industrial Revolution with his development of the Watt engine. Asked to repair a model of Thomas Newcomen's steam engine, he instead made improvements to it that resulted in a new type of engine. One such design enhancement, the separate condenser, radically improved the power, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness of steam engines. The watt, a unit of power, is named for him. What other unit of power did he develop? 

 

From Wikipedia:  Horsepower (hp) is a unit of measurement of power, or the rate at which work is done. [...]  The term was adopted in the late 18th century by Scottish engineer James Watt to compare the output of steam engines with the power of draft horses.

 

Bonus question:  How many hp is a Carver M1.0t MkII Opt2 amp?  😉

 

Capture.JPG.f194f20cfd1cf3b2e6e8aa3013bb47b5.JPG

 

Edited by AndrewJohn
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On 1/21/2020 at 7:45 AM, AndrewJohn said:

 

From Wikipedia:  Horsepower (hp) is a unit of measurement of power, or the rate at which work is done. [...]  The term was adopted in the late 18th century by Scottish engineer James Watt to compare the output of steam engines with the power of draft horses.

 

Bonus question:  How many hp is a Carver M1.0t MkII Opt2 amp?  😉

 

Capture.JPG.f194f20cfd1cf3b2e6e8aa3013bb47b5.JPG

 

 

SOmething I've always wondered about;  you've shown a relationship between electrical work units and physical work units (Watt and Horsepower).

 

Most of us that listen to things on purpose know that our senses have a logarithmic relationship with what they are experiencing.  If it were not so, our ears would have to be enourmous in order to respond to such a wide range of sound pressure levels.  Most of us know the rule of thumb that 'barely louder when I'm trying to tell' is 1dB more sound pressure, that a 'tish louder' is 3dB (a logarithmic scale, which is double the power), and twice as loud=10dB (10X the power).

 

Fine, good and well (for sounds)

i.e. you don't often hear a music listener worrying over a 10W difference between two amplifiers, because they KNOW that the SPL difference is negligible.

 

OTOH, take, for example, automobile enthusiasts.  You've already shown above that horsepower and watt are both units of power (work over time), and that a human's experience with forces tend to not be linear, but rather logarithmic.

 

BUT, I often hear car guys worrying over a 10HP difference that cold air intake Z will give them, despite the fact that it is not perceivable (although it is measurable).

 

Does anybody have a suggestion as to why this is so? 

Edited by RichP714
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19 hours ago, RichP714 said:

 

SOmething I've always wondered about;  you've shown a relationship between electrical work units and physical work units (Watt and Horsepower).

 

Most of us that listen to things on purpose know that our senses have a logarithmic relationship with what they are experiencing.  If it were not so, our ears would have to be enourmous in order to respond to such a wide range of sound pressure levels.  Most of us know the rule of thumb that 'barely louder when I'm trying to tell' is 1dB more sound pressure, that a 'tish louder' is 3dB (a logarithmic scale, which is double the power), and twice as loud=10dB (10X the power).

 

Fine, good and well (for sounds)

i.e. you don't often hear a music listener worrying over a 10W difference between two amplifiers, because they KNOW that the SPL difference is negligible.

 

OTOH, take, for example, automobile enthusiasts.  You've already shown above that horsepower and watt are both units of power (work over time), and that a human's experience with forces tend to not be linear, but rather logarithmic.

 

BUT, I often hear car guys worrying over a 10HP difference that cold air intake Z will give them, despite the fact that it is not perceivable (although it is measurable).

 

Does anybody have a suggestion as to why this is so? 

 

I certainly and absolutely, don't know for sure.

 

However, I have pondered that it must have something to do with the specific "measure of work" performed.  I.e., the physics equation "Work = Force x Displacement", or in English, "Work is the product of Force and Displacement."  Sometimes, written replacing "Displacement" with "Distance."  

 

OK, so what is it that I'm suggesting it has to do with?  it's the "displacement."  Easy enough to see the horse, in the original figure, lifting the weight a displacement distance.  But, what is the "displacement" of wave forces on the tympanic membrane?  (or out the speaker cone?)  Is it cumulative of both in and out displacement?  And is it one cycle, or many cycles, over time, cumulative?  I think the factor that has to have a standard metric is going  to be displacement..., then, perhaps it's solvable in the form of some equation.  (For that matter, someone probably already has done the calculus..., I haven't come across it, yet.) 

 

But, honestly, I don't know - just offering this concept as a suggestion to lead to the answer, or as a point of confusion that I have around the question/topic.

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5 hours ago, AndrewJohn said:

 

I certainly and absolutely, don't know for sure.

 

However, I have pondered that it must have something to do with the specific "measure of work" performed.  I.e., the physics equation "Work = Force x Displacement", or in English, "Work is the product of Force and Displacement."  Sometimes, written replacing "Displacement" with "Distance."  

 

OK, so what is it that I'm suggesting it has to do with?  it's the "displacement."  Easy enough to see the horse, in the original figure, lifting the weight a displacement distance.  But, what is the "displacement" of wave forces on the tympanic membrane?  (or out the speaker cone?)  Is it cumulative of both in and out displacement?  And is it one cycle, or many cycles, over time, cumulative?  I think the factor that has to have a standard metric is going  to be displacement..., then, perhaps it's solvable in the form of some equation.  (For that matter, someone probably already has done the calculus..., I haven't come across it, yet.) 

 

But, honestly, I don't know - just offering this concept as a suggestion to lead to the answer, or as a point of confusion that I have around the question/topic.

 

Looking for the displacement to calculate work (product of force and distance), can be a bit tough; remember your physics prof asking where the work is if you hold a heavy book in your hand at waist level for 10 minutes?  After all, the book isn't moving, but it sure does get harder to hold, so there MUST be work, eh?

 

IN your post above, the work is being done by pumping electrons through wire (in the old days, you could experience this for yourself by cranking your telephone to generate enough electricity to get a dial tone (you could feel the effort required to do the work, as compared to cranking the phone when it isn't in circuit).

 

 

In this case, though, I was talking about power (work being the product of Force applied over a distance, and Power being the rate of work done over time).  I guess I'm wondering aloud why people can know something,  yet disregard it.

 

e.g. Human perception of Power is a logarithmic experience, it takes twice the power to feel just a 'tish' of difference (3dB), yet some claim that they can 'feel' a very small power increase from (for example) adding a cold air intake to their vehicle.

Edited by RichP714
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Today in History

Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Inducts Its First Members (1986)

The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame is a museum dedicated to archiving the history of rock music. It was created in 1983 but did not have a home until 1995, when it opened its Hall of Fame in Cleveland, Ohio, after civic leaders pledged $65 million in public money to fund its construction. The first group of inductees included Chuck Berry, Buddy Holly, Elvis Presley, Ray Charles, and James Brown, to name a few. What band inducted into the Hall in 2006 refused to attend the induction ceremony?

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Perpetual Motion

The expression "perpetual motion" arose in connection to the quest for a mechanism that, once set in motion, would continue to do useful work without an external source of energy. A mechanism using this type of motion, now called perpetual motion of the first kind, would clearly violate the now firmly established principle of conservation of energy. Still, this fact has not deterred inventors throughout history from proposing hypothetical perpetual motion machines. What are some of them?

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I was wondering why capacitors had gone up so much in price and found this explanation.

Capacitor plague

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Failed aluminum electrolytic capacitors with open vents in the top of the can, and visible dried electrolyte residue (reddish-brown color)

The capacitor plague was a problem related to a higher-than-expected failure rate of non-solid aluminum electrolytic capacitors, between 1999 and 2007, especially those from some Taiwanese manufacturers,[1][2] due to faulty electrolyte composition that caused corrosion accompanied by gas generation, often rupturing the case of the capacitor from the build-up of pressure.

High failure rates occurred in many well-known brands of electronics, and were particularly evident in motherboards, video cards, and power supplies of personal computers.

Contents

1History

1.1First announcements

1.2Public attention

1.3Prevalence

1.4Responsibility

1.5Industrial espionage

2Symptoms

2.1Common characteristics

2.2Premature failure

2.3Electrical symptoms

2.4Visible symptoms

3Non-solid aluminum electrolytic capacitors

3.1Basic construction

3.2Forming the aluminum-oxide dielectric

3.3Electrolyte composition

4Water-based electrolyte capacitors

4.1Development of a water-based electrolyte

4.2The water problem in non-solid aluminum electrolytic capacitors

4.3Water-driven corrosion: aluminum hydroxide

4.4Manufacturing for market

5Investigation

5.1Implications of industrial espionage

5.2Incomplete electrolyte formula

6See also

7References

8Further reading

History[edit]

First announcements[edit]

Faulty capacitors have been a problem since capacitors' initial development, but the first flawed capacitors linked to Taiwanese raw material problems were reported by the specialist magazine Passive Component Industry in September 2002.[1] Shortly thereafter, two mainstream electronics journals reported the discovery of widespread prematurely failing capacitors, from Taiwanese manufacturers, in motherboards.[3][4]

These publications informed engineers and other technically interested specialists, but the issue did not receive widespread public exposure until Carey Holzman published his experiences about "leaking capacitors" in the overclocking performance community.[5]

Public attention[edit]

Results of fire on a printed circuit board, caused by leaked electrolyte which short-circuited conductors carrying power

The news from the Holzman publication spread quickly on the Internet and in newspapers, partly due to the spectacular images of the failures — bulging or burst cans, expelled sealing rubber and leaking electrolyte on countless circuit boards. Many PC users were affected, and caused an avalanche of reports and comments on thousands of blogs and other web communities.[4][6][7]

The quick spread of the news also resulted in many misinformed users and blogs posting pictures of capacitors that had failed due to reasons other than faulty electrolyte.[8]

Prevalence[edit]

Most of the affected capacitors were produced from 1999 to 2003 and failed between 2002 and 2005. Problems with capacitors produced with an incorrectly formulated electrolyte have affected equipment manufactured up to at least 2007.[2]

Major vendors of motherboards such as Abit,[9] IBM,[1] Dell,[10] Apple, HP, and Intel[11] were affected by capacitors with faulty electrolytes.

In 2005, Dell spent some US$420 million replacing motherboards outright and on the logistics of determining whether a system was in need of replacement.[12][13]

Many other equipment manufacturers unknowingly assembled and sold boards with faulty capacitors, and as a result the effect of the capacitor plague could be seen in all kinds of devices worldwide.

Because not all manufacturers had offered recalls or repairs, do-it-yourself repair instructions were written and published on the Internet.[14]

Responsibility[edit]

In the November/December 2002 issue of Passive Component Industry, following its initial story about defective electrolyte, reported that some large Taiwanese manufacturers of electrolytic capacitors were denying responsibility for defective products.[15]

While industrial customers confirmed the failures, they were not able to trace the source of the faulty components. The defective capacitors were marked with previously unknown brands such as "Tayeh", "Choyo", or "Chhsi".[16] The marks were not easily linked to familiar companies or product brands. Failed e-caps with well known brands may have had failures not related to defective electrolyte.

The motherboard manufacturer ABIT Computer Corp. was the only affected manufacturer that publicly admitted to defective capacitors obtained from Taiwan capacitor makers being used in its products.[15] However, the company would not reveal the name of the capacitor maker that supplied the faulty products.

Industrial espionage[edit]

A 2003 article in The Independent claimed that the cause of the faulty capacitors was in fact due to a mis-copied formula. In 2001, a scientist working in the Rubycon Corporation in Japan stole a mis-copied formula for capacitors' electrolytes. He had first worked for the Luminous Town Electric company in China. In the same year, the scientist's staff left China, stealing again the mis-copied formula and moving to Taiwan, where they would have created their own company, producing capacitors and propagating even more of this faulty formula of capacitor electrolytes.[17]

Symptoms[edit]

Common characteristics[edit]

The non-solid aluminum electrolytic capacitors with improperly formulated electrolyte mostly belonged to the so-called "low equivalent series resistance (ESR)", "low impedance", or "high ripple current" e-cap series. The advantage of e-caps using an electrolyte composed of 70% water or more is, in particular, a low ESR, which allows a higher ripple current, and decreased production costs, water being the least costly material in a capacitor.[18]

Comparison of aluminum e-caps with different non-solid electrolytes

ElectrolyteManufacturer
series, typeDimensions
D × L
(mm)Max. ESR
at 100 kHz, 20 °C
(mΩ)Max. ripple current
at 85/105 °C
(mA)

Non-solid
organic electrolyteVishay
036 RSP, 100 µF, 10 V5 × 111000160

Non-solid, ethylene-glycol,
boric-acid (borax) electrolyteNCC
SMQ, 100 µF, 10 V5 × 11900180

Non-solid
water-based electrolyteRubycon
ZL, 100 µF, 10 V5 × 11300250

Premature failure[edit]

All electrolytic capacitors with non-solid electrolyte age over time, due to evaporation of the electrolyte. The capacitance usually decreases and the ESR usually increases. The normal lifespan of a non-solid electrolytic capacitor of consumer quality, typically rated at 2000 h/85 °C and operating at 40 °C, is roughly 6 years. It can be more than 10 years for a 1000 h/105 °C capacitor operating at 40 °C. Electrolytic capacitors that operate at a lower temperature can have a considerably longer lifespan.

The capacitance should normally degrade to as low as 70% of the rated value, and the ESR increase to twice the rated value, over the normal life span of the component, before it should be considered as a "degradation failure".[19][20] The life of an electrolytic capacitor with defective electrolyte can be as little as two years. The capacitor may fail prematurely after reaching approximately 30% to 50% of its expected lifetime.

Electrical symptoms[edit]

The electrical characteristics of a failed electrolytic capacitor with an open vent are the following:

capacitance value decreases to below the rated value

ESR increases to very high values.

Electrolytic capacitors with an open vent are in the process of drying out, regardless of whether they have good or bad electrolyte. They always show low capacitance values and very high ohmic ESR values. Dry e-caps are therefore electrically useless.

E-caps can fail without any visible symptoms. Since the electrical characteristics of electrolytic capacitors are the reason for their use, these parameters must be tested with instruments to definitively decide if the devices have failed. But even if the electrical parameters are out of their specifications, the assignment of failure to the electrolyte problem is not a certainty.

Non-solid aluminum electrolytic capacitors without visible symptoms, which have improperly formulated electrolyte, typically show two electrical symptoms:

relatively high and fluctuating leakage current[21][22]

increased capacitance value, up to twice the rated value, which fluctuates after heating and cooling of the capacitor body

Visible symptoms[edit]

Closeup of a broken electrolytic capacitor vent and dried electrolyte residue

When examining a failed electronic device, the failed capacitors can easily be recognized by clearly visible symptoms that include the following:[23]

Bulging of the vent on top of the capacitor. (The "vent" is stamped into the top of the casing of a can-shaped capacitor, forming a seam that is meant to split to relieve pressure build-up inside, preventing an explosion.)

Broken or cracked vent, often accompanied with visible crusty rust-like brown or red dried electrolyte deposits.

Capacitor casing sitting crooked on the circuit board, caused by the bottom rubber plug being pushed out, sometimes with electrolyte having leaked onto the motherboard from the base of the capacitor, visible as dark-brown or black surface deposits on the PCB.[24] The leaked electrolyte can be confused with thick elastic glue sometimes used to secure the capacitors against shock. A dark brown or black crust up the side of a capacitor is invariably glue, not electrolyte. The glue itself is harmless.

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Arthur Rubinstein (1887)

Rubinstein was a Polish-American pianist whose enormous popularity spanned many decades. He debuted in 1900 and performed with moderate success until the 1930s, when he stopped performing for five years to improve his technique and reemerged as a giant of 20th-century music, active into his 80s. In the US, he was equally noted as soloist and chamber musician. His repertoire ranged from Bach to 20th-century Spanish composers, but he was particularly noted for his interpretation of what composer?

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Today is a very special occasion -- the date is a palindrome, meaning it is the same when read forwards and backwards.

It is February 2, 2020, or 02/02/2020, in both the MM/DD/YYYY format and the DD/MM/YYYY format. At just after 2 a.m., it was 02:02:20 on 02/02/2020.

This is the only time such a date will occur this century.

The previous palindrome date in all formats came 909 years ago on 11/11/1111. The next will come in 101 years on 12/12/2121 and after that there will not be another until 03/03/3030. Solihull School Maths Department wrote on Twitter: "Today is a Palindrome Day in all date formats (UK, USA, ISO). It's also a palindrome day of the year (33) and there are a palindrome number of days left in the year (333). Quite a unique day!"

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